We further show that RA and ACVR2B mutation have synergistic effects on vertebral patterning. None of the left-right patterning abnormalities and organogenesis defects identified in mice carrying mutations in Nodal or in genes encoding ActRIIA and ActRIIB coreceptors, including heart malformations, pulmonary isomerism, right-sided gut, and spleen hypoplasia, were observed in mice lacking ALK7.