Transient expression of BCHE-reporter gene constructs showed that a 194-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region of human BCHE and a 570-bp fragment of rabbit BCHE were sufficient for promoting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in HeLa cells. The objectives of our study were to examine whether the BCHE K variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes or estimates of pancreatic beta cell function in large-scale populations of glucose-tolerant Caucasians.