14 octobre 2012

Knockout phenotype of Desmin

When the gene for desmin is knocked out it is no longer able to function properly. Mice with the desmin knockout gene develop normally and are fertile, however soon after birth they begin to show defects in skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle; in particular the diaphragm and heart are affected. The mice without desmin are weaker and fatigue more easily than wild type mice and the muscle fibers are more likely to be damaged during contraction, presumably because the desmin is responsible for keeping the muscle fibers aligned. Mice... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 11:00 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]

14 octobre 2012

Putative functions of Desmin

The function of desmin has been deduced through studies in knockout mice, but the underlying mechanism of its action is not known. These possibilities may be the result of interactions with other proteins and not desmin itself. More research needs to be done on desmin's expression and interactions in the muscle cell in order to determine its exact function.Desmin is one of the earliest protein markers for muscle tissue in embryogenesis as it is detected in the somites of myoblasts. Although it is present early in the development of... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 10:59 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
14 octobre 2012

Desmin

Desmin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DES gene.Desmin is a type III intermediate filament found near the Z line in sarcomeres. It was first described in 1976, first purified in 1977, the gene was cloned in 1989, and the first knock-out mouse was created in 1996. Desmin is only expressed in vertebrates, however homologous proteins are found in many organisms. It is a 52kD protein that is a subunit of intermediate filaments in skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue.
Posté par tnfalpha à 10:54 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
12 octobre 2012

CCR5-Δ32

CCR5-Δ32 is a deletion mutation of a gene that has a specific impact on the function of T cells.At least one copy of CCR5-Δ32 is found in about (5-14%) of people of Northern European and in those of Northern European descent. There also is a small minority (1%) with the same mutation amongst Southern Europeans or Balkan Peninsula. It has been hypothesized that this allele was favored by natural selection during the Black Death for Northern Europeans. Prostitution in areas such as Corinth in Ancient Greece could have also infected... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 16:07 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
12 octobre 2012

HIV and CCR5

HIV most commonly uses CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as a co-receptor to enter its target cells. Several chemokine receptors can function as viral coreceptors, but CCR5 is likely the most physiologically important coreceptor during natural infection. The normal ligands for this receptor, RANTES, MIP-1β, and MIP-1α, are able to suppress HIV-1 infection in vitro. In individuals infected with HIV, CCR5-using viruses are the predominant species isolated during the early stages of viral infection, suggesting that these viruses may have a selective... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 16:06 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
12 octobre 2012

Function of CCR5

The CCR5 protein belongs to the beta chemokine receptors family of integral membrane proteins. It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group.The natural chemokine ligands that bind to this receptor are RANTES (a chemotactic cytokine protein also known as CCL5) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α and 1β (also known as CCL3 and CCL4). It also interacts with CCL3L1.CCR5 is predominantly expressed on T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and microglia. It is likely that CCR5... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 16:03 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]

11 octobre 2012

CCR5

C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines. This is the process by which T cells are attracted to specific tissue and organ targets. Many forms of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, initially use CCR5 to enter and infect host cells. A few individuals carry a mutation known as CCR5-Δ32 in the CCR5 gene, protecting them against these strains of HIV.In humans, the CCR5 gene that encodes the CCR5... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 10:12 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
05 octobre 2012

Collection and Panels of Beta2-Microglobulin

Beta2 microglobulin can be determined in urine, serum, or plasma samples. It is not necessary to draw the sample in a fasting state, and no special preparations are necessary. Blood is collected by venipuncture in a red-top tube and centrifuged to separate serum from cells after clot formation. Samples may be stored refrigerated at 2-8°C for 5 days. For longer storage (up to 6 months), samples should be stored frozen at -20°C. To avoid repeated thawing and freezing, the samples should be aliquoted. Bilirubin and hemolysis do not... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 08:31 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
29 septembre 2012

Beta2-Microglobulin Interpretation

Interpretation depends on the specific clinical indication and context. Low serum levels of beta2 microglobulin essentially indicate decreased disease activity in conditions for which beta2 microglobulin is used as a prognostic marker (multiple myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia) or the absence of such a disease process. However, low beta2 microglobulin levels are never used to rule out a particular disease (eg, lymphoma) in the absence of other more definitive tests. Increased serum beta2 microglobulin levels reflect increased activity of... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 13:37 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]
26 septembre 2012

Reference Range of beta2 microglobulin

Serum and plasma beta2 microglobulin values have emerged as markers for the activation of the cellular immune system, as well as a tumor marker in certain hematologic malignancies. Urine beta2 microglobulin values indicate renal filtration disorders. Measurement of values in both serum and urine can help distinguish a problem of cellular activation from a renal disorder. The reference range of beta2 microglobulin in urine samples is 0-0.3 µg/mL. In serum or plasma samples, the reference range is 0-3 µg/mL. It is recommended that... [Lire la suite]
Posté par tnfalpha à 14:54 - Commentaires [0] - Permalien [#]